History of the UK
The Celts arrived to England 2 500 years ago. In the 1st century was England added to the Roman Empire. They remained there for almost four centuries. After that the German tribes came – the Angles, the Saxons, the Juts. They had to fight with the Vikings, who came to loot and to kill. In the 11th century William the Conqueror defeated the Saxon King Harold in the Battle of Hastings and established a strong kingdom with the Normans in high positions.
The opposition by nobles forced King John to sign Magna Charta in the beginning of the 13th century. Magna Charta was a guarantee of rights and the rule of law. During the 13th century the parliamentary system slowly developed. In the 14th century was in England the War of the Roses.
Under the rule of Queen Elizabeth I. England became a major sea power and started its colonial politics. During the 17th century England and Scotland were ruled by one monarch but remained separate. In about 1640 there was a bloody Civil War between the Parliament and the Stuart Kings, which won Oliver Cromwell. He established a republic. The monarchy was restored in 1660 but the „glorious Revolution“ confirmed the sovereignty of the Parliament.
In the 19th century Britain became the greatest colonial power. In the first World War the UK suffered great causalities and huge economic losses.
Ireland became independent in 1921. India also became independent.
The World War II was a great period of heroism, but GB lost its leading position in the world and in the post-war period lost also its colonies.