James I. , Charles I. , Oliver Cromwell , Charles II
James I. and his son Charles I. regarded themselves as “Kings of Divine Right” and wanted to rule absolutely.
Charles’s conflict with parliament developed into a civil war. The parliamentary troops (
supported by the Puritans) were organized by Oliver Cromwell (Charles’s servant).
Charles I. was executed by OC in 1649 (battle of Naseby) and then he was headed..
Charles II. (son of the Charles I.) escaped to France, OC’s soldiers nearly caught him, he managed to hide himself
Oliver Cromwell (1649-1658)
– became a ruler of England, not as a king but as “Protector of the Commonwealth”(Lord Protector) and for 10 years he ruled firmly, established a Puritan “Commonwealth
– dissolved parliament, time of religious intolerance, old customs were forbidden, the theatres were closed
– really united England, Scotland and Ireland
– enforced justice and order at home, made England stronger and more respected abroad than she had ever been before
– was buried in Westminster Abbey
– there are many legends about Cromwell’s body. They say that when The Stuarts were restored after Cromwell’s death, his body was taken from Westminster Abbey and his head was set up over the gates of Westminster Hall. Others say that his body was put into the Thames and later taken out of the river by his family and buried in the walls of a castle
– Navigation acts (1651) – goods imported or exported by English colonies will be stipulated on vessels constructed by English shipbuilders and sailed by crews that were 75% English
– was asked to return from exile in France
– period of restoration
– re-established Parliament and the Church of England
– Dissenters(all other Protestant) and Roman Catholics were excluded from public offices
– 2 political parties: the Tories (landed aristocracy, supported the King and the Church of England) x the Whigs (mostly moneyed middle-class)
– Habeas Corpus-the most important act passed in Parliament; arrested persons were to be questioned by a magistrate within 3 days or set free
– 1666 big catastrophe – London was destroyed by fire (it started in Pudding Line), the fire lasted for few days, people decided to rebuilt it quickly, a new rule was published and put in practice – houses couldn’t be built from wood, only stone houses were allowed
– many of the buildings were designed by famous architect Sir Christopher Wren (e.g. St. Paul’s Cathedral)