WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE (1564-1616)
He was one of the greatest dramatists the world has ever seen. He has become famous world-wide, not only in his native England.
He was born in April 1564 at Stratford upon Avon at the third child of Mary and John Shakespeare. His father worked as a glove-maker. The whole family lived in a house on Henley Street.
He attended the local grammar school.
When W. Shakespeare was 18 years old, he married Ann Hathaway. She was 8 years older than W. They had two daughters (Susan and Judith) and a son, Judith’s twin brother Hamnet, who died when he was eleven years old.
Four years after marrying Ann, W. decided to leave for London- he left his wife and children and moved to the capital of England. There he became an actor and co-owner of a theatrical company. Soon thereafter his talent was recognised. At first he rewrote and edited older plays. Later he started to write his own plays.
W.S. was very successful. After his arrival in London he joined the King’s Men group of actors. In 1599 he bought the Globe Theatre.
During the twenty years that he lived in London, he wrote many tragedies, comedies, tragicomedies historical plays and sonnets.
He died on the same date he was born-on April 23rd. (prehnal oslavu narozenin)
The plays have renaissance features, meaning that the theme is secular one(světský namet), the heroes are master of their fate(osud), they assert their own will and their actions are the consequence of their character. His plays reflect the problems his time.(bud – timelessness-nadcasovost)
HAMLET –Hamlet, Prince of Denmark –the ambivalence(rozpor) of Hamlet, as to whether or not he should reveal his father’s murder. He wants to force(donutit) the murderer to confess. To punish evil or to fulfil ideals?
„To be, or not to be,–that is the question:–
Whether ‚tis nobler in the mind to suffer
The slings and arrows of outrageous fortune
Or to take arms against a sea of troubles,
And by opposing end them?“
ROMEO AND JULIET – Romeo fell in love with Juliet. They married in secrecy because their families hated each other. Romeo was descended from the Montague clan and Juliet from the Capulet clan. These were the two most powerful families in Verona. Romeo murdered Tybald who was J.s causin, and was banished (vykazan) from Verona. J.s parent wanted J. to marry a wealthy Paris.
J. drank a potion which made her look as if she were dead.
Unfortunately, Romeo came to J. before she awoke. Thinking that she was dead, he poisoned himself. When J. found her lover dead beside her, she stabbed herself to death.
The death of Romeo and Juliet brought about a reconciliation between this two clans.
„O Romeo, Romeo! wherefore art thou Romeo?“
–From Romeo and Juliet (II, ii, 33)
Juliet cries these words into the night, having just met and fallen in love with Romeo of the Montague family, sworn enemy of her own (Capulet) family. This famous line has been misunderstood through popular history, with comedic interpretations showing Juliet glancing about her garden, looking for her Romeo. It is not where, but why, she asks: why are you Romeo and a Montague, my father’s enemy? Their love is made impossible by their names, and Juliet ponders this situation from her balcony, „Deny thy father and refuse thy name/Or it thou wilt not be, be but sworn my love,/And I’ll no longer be a Capulet.“
Themes/Keywords: love, feud, family
(citat-cj-Kouzelne zrcadlo lit.1.-str143-kdybyste měli zajem)
další zprac.-R. Roland
MACBETH – tragedy of bloody rise the power, the way to power though crime
A MIDSUMMER NIGHT’S DREAM – wedding play, comedy to amuse the people
OTHELLO – tragedy of jealousy
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